Traits

Traits are a way to express the desired behaviour of a type without stating which type you need specifically. A function taking in a parameter with a trait type can take any argument whose type implements that trait. In this way, traits provide a means to specify function(s) are implemented for given typevariable(s). If a type that does not implement, eg Trait 't is passed to a function expecting Trait 't then the compiler will issue an error explaining that the provided argument must implement Trait 't and list the functions required to do so.

A new trait is declared by specifying the trait’s name, which must be a valid type name, followed by a block of function headers that values of that trait must implement.

trait Eq 't
    (==) 't 't -> bool

Implementing a trait is done with a trait impl, short for trait implementation. Note that because all the types are provided in the trait definition, the parameter types of trait impls can always be inferred.

impl Eq Str
    //now we must implement (==) or get an error
    (==) l r =
        strcmp l r = 0

As Parameters

As traits are not types themselves, you cannot require a parameter of type Eq 't (for example). Instead, the parameter is of type 't and you must specify some impl for Eq 't is required via a given clause.

all_equal a:'t b:'t c:'t -> bool given Eq 't =
    a == b && b == c

Default Functions

If a full function definition is provided within a trait instead of just the header then that function definition will be used by default and types implementing the trait will not need to reimplement it to implement the trait.

trait RelOps 't
    //require cmp to be implemented
    cmp 't 't -> i32

    //and implement all comparison operators based on cmp
    (=) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b == 0

    (<) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b < 0

    (!=) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b != 0

    (>=) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b >= 0

    (<=) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b <= 0

    (>) a:'t b:'t =
        cmp a b > 0


impl RelOps Str
    cmp l r = strcmp l r

//now cmp, =, <, !=, >=, <=, and > are defined for Str

Combining Traits

Multiple traits can be required via separating them in the given clause with ‘,’

print_eq a:'t b:'t -> unit given Eq 't, Print 't
    print a "==" b "is" (a == b)

Alternatively, a name can be given to a trait combination by using type aliasing:

type EqPrint 't is 't given Eq 't, Print 't

print_eq (a: EqPrint 't) (b: EqPrint 't) =
    print a "==" b "is" (a == b)